Saturday, August 8, 2020
Metaphor of the Month! In Medias Res Richmond Writing I credit a student in my first-year seminar, The Space Race, for this. Id mentioned the phrase as the way many modern films begin, right in the middle of things, without so much as a credit-roll. This is a handy term for studying narratives, in books or films. Often we feel dropped right in, which can add both confusion and excitement. After class, my student prudently corrected my version, in media res, which I see from time to time. Our metaphor is pure Latin, so the correct case for the second word is medias. The OED lists many Latin phrases, such as in memoriam or in nomine that we still use in certain formal, sacred, or academic settings. Bryan Garners Modern American usage cautions us to check spellings, as in memoriam sometimes appears as memorium. Thats incorrect. Heres a usage example. I was teaching Damian Chazelles excellent film First Man, and a viewers first encounter with Neil Armstrong, in medias res, is in the cockpit of an X-15 rocket plane about to blast into the upper atmosphere. Nothing boring about that! Note that I put the foreign phase weve borrowed into italics. I bow to the wisdom of the post at The Grammarist that does likewise. Our pick this week might be considered just a phrase, not a metaphor, but considering how loosely I hear it employed by learned speakers, Im going to side with its figurative usage, as in There we were, in medias res, when he burst in and made things a shambles. That could mean the interloper burst in early on, came late, or simply appeared, unbidden. One might not be interrupted in the middle to employ our metaphor. Yes, a few of us still drop in a Latin phrase. I love Academia. I cant resist working in old Metaphors of the Month, as I did with shambles just now. Send us more, and Words of the Week too, by e-mailing me (jessid -at- richmond -dot- edu) or leaving a comment below. See all of our Metaphors of the Month here and Words of the Week here. Image courtesy of NASAs Armstrong Flight Research Center. Neil Armstrong, incidentally, so respected Hugh L. Dryden, whose name had been on the facility, that he tried to keep NASA from renaming it. That says a lot about a very humble American hero who first stepped on the Moon. Any time I can work an X-15 or any other rocket plane or spacecraft into a post about literary terms, I shall.
Friday, June 26, 2020
Away with the Gods, the Magic Suffices An Analysis of Die Nibelungen and the Nibelungenlied - Literature Essay Samples
The purpose of a myth is to promote an ideology and to set standards for society. In this way, according to Bidney, the myth is the source of morality and religion (Myth, Symbolism, and Truth 22). This would explain the various connections between Christianity and the Germanic and Norse mythology. For example, the story of creation runs parallel: the universe begins dark and empty, a single entity is responsible for the first creation, and smaller beings complete the design of the world(s). In addition, one could argue the similarity between the Nordic apple of life and the Biblical forbidden fruit, which is typically translated as an apple, in the Garden of Eden. The Germanic epic poem Das Nibelungenlied, based on 5th and 6th century historic leaders and occurrences, also portrays parallels with Christian elements. Perhaps these comparisons exist because all myths were written down as a result of Christianization, and the Nibelungenlied in particular was not written down until the 13th century. Due to the strong Christian sentiment of the 18th century, when the text was rediscovered, there was an inner conflict with the depicted pagan way of life and as such, the focus of appreciation for the text centered on the epicÃ¢â¬â¢s magical elements (Krause 195). This focus remained until the beginning of the 20th century, when Fritz Lang produced his two-part silent film Die Nibelungen. In the film Lang avoided mention of the Germanic and Nordic gods and instead preserved magical elements such as the dragon, the cloak of invisibility and the heroesÃ¢â¬â¢ superpowers; invincibility and strength. From the context of the Nibelungenlied and Die Nibelungen not only is an underlying message of Christianity conveyed, but also a deviation from the Nordic-Germanic gods and towards magic is noticeably prese nt. The Nibelungenlied is a heroic epos in Middle High German. The epic deals with the dragon slayer Siegfried and the Burgundian people, the ultimate murder of Siegfried, and the revenge of his wife Kriemhild on his death. The poem was written by an anonymous poet with references to Germanic mythology as well as interspersed Christian elements. The Nibelungenlied also contains historical events and peoples, such as the Hunnish king Attila, but the poem alone is a creation of history. For this reason, the Nibelungenlied stirred a feeling of national identity after its rediscovery in the 18th century, although some features of Germanic heroism were abused and combined with racism (Krause, Ã¢â¬Å"In RomanticismÃ¢â¬ ). Whether the unnamed poet deliberately integrated Christian elements remains a question for mythologists, but certain aspects between the epic and the Bible are too similar to be overlooked. Siegfried, the hero of the story, serves as a Ã¢â¬Å"middlemanÃ¢â¬ between the hu man world and the magical world, as Jesus was the mediator between humanity and God. The blood of the dragon, in which Siegfried bathes, gives him invincibility and immortalizes him to a certain degree, with the exception of the Achilles spot on his back. Over this point, Kriemhild naively sews a cross, a prominent Christian symbol, on the back of SiegfriedÃ¢â¬â¢s tunic. Some might consider it sacrilege to directly compare Siegfried with Jesus, however distinct parallels exist regarding the subject of sacrifice and the meaning of blood. The film Die Nibelungen by Fritz Lang shows the deviation from the religious aspects within Germanic mythology to the purely magical elements. Such magical attributes in Die Nibelungen include the dragon, BrunhildÃ¢â¬â¢s strength, the cloak of invisibility, SiegfriedÃ¢â¬â¢s invincibility, and even KriemhildÃ¢â¬â¢s foreshadowing dream. In his essay, Gunning writes that Ã¢â¬Å"[Fritz LangÃ¢â¬â¢s] Die Nibelungen chronicles the disenchantment of the magical world, its betrayal and the apocalyptic consequences of that betrayalÃ¢â¬ (The Films of Fritz Lang 35). There is a noticeable absence of Germanic gods in this plot, and both figures with supernatural abilities, Siegfried and Brunhild, are undermined; reflecting the collapse of the myth world. Although all of LangÃ¢â¬â¢s characters come from Middle Earth, evident in the fact that they are human beings, there is an incorporation of Nordic mythology into his cinematography. For example, the rainbow shown in the opening scene of Die Nibelungen is an allusion to Bifrost, the bridge connecting Asgard to Middle Earth (Gunning 37). Lang wanted to bring about a national renewal of appreciation for Germanic myths, and did so by bringing the myths to life on the screen. Lang manipulated the narrative to fit his vision; his motivation for Die Nibelungen was actually a criticism of Hollywood films (Levin). By focusing on the magical elements in Nordic-Germanic mythology, Lang promoted its complex of stories without emphasizing gods or religion. His inspiration, the Nibelungenlied, also reflects no dependency on the gods. The noticeable elements in the epic include the supernatural, heroes, and the villains, and there is a perceptible theme of Christianity. Given the anonymous authorÃ¢â¬â¢s familiarity with history, as he refers to events and individuals from the 5th and 6th centuries, it is possible that these allusions to Christianity were intentional. Works Cited Bidney, David. Myth, Symbolism, and Truth. 1955. PDF. Gunning, Tom. The Films of Fritz Lang: Allegories of Vision and Modernity. Ã¢â¬Å"Chapter 2: The Decay of Myth.Ã¢â¬ BFI Publishing. 2000. PDF. Krause, Arnulf. Von GÃ ¶ttern und Helden. Ã¢â¬Å"Die Mythen des Nordens.Ã¢â¬ Stuttgart. 2004. PDF. Krause, Arnulf. Von GÃ ¶ttern und Helden. Ã¢â¬Å"Die Mythen des Nordens in der Romantik.Ã¢â¬ Stuttgart. 2004. PDF. Levin, David J. Richard Wagner, Fritz Lang, and the Nibelungen. Princeton University Press. 1998. PDF. The Nibelungenlied: The Lay of the Nibelungs. Translated by Edwards, Cyril. Oxford University Press. 2010.
Saturday, May 23, 2020
Anybody would be hard pressed to find a term associated with political geography with a worse connotation than imperialism. A word that encompasses the bloodiest of history, and is usually used in conjunction with colonialism and the stripping of all things deemed valuable from a foreign land. Specifically in Latin America, imperialism has been an economic death sentence since Columbus landed in 1492. Latin America has been depleted of raw materials and its natural resources by western conquerors (mostly Spain, Portugal, and the United States) for more than a half a century. Imperialism has usually been defined as the process of accumulation of land, resources, and labor, as well as the creation of power and influence through military force. In less neutral words, the claiming of already occupied lands, the overtaking of resources, and the establishment of slavery. A key part of imperialism is the mentality of being the oppressor country. Imperialism is supported by the ideology that suggests that people of certain areas and of certain races require assistance and to be shown Ã¢â¬Å"civilization.Ã¢â¬ Profit was the ultimate goal of imperialism, but behind this goal was the justification that people from lands far away should be ruled over and it is the empireÃ¢â¬â¢s duty to rule over uncivilized peoples, as they believed them to be. This fact in regards to Latin America can be seen in the evolution of the Monroe Doctrine, which I want to get into further along this paper. AfterShow MoreRelatedGlobalization and It Effects on Cultural Integration: the Case of the Czech Republic.27217 Words Ã |Ã 109 PagesGLOBALIZATION AND IT EFFECTS ON CULTURAL INTEGRATION: THE CASE OF THE CZECH REPUBLIC. INTRODUCTION I. AN OVERVIEW. With the growing standards of the world and the existing concepts and complexities in political, economic and socio-cultural ideologies, man has always and continuously pondered over the aspects of his nature. Unity, equality, trade and commerce are at the forefront of mans complexities. With these thoughts in mind, man has moved through history trying to satisfy his desiresRead MoreDeveloping Management Skills404131 Words Ã |Ã 1617 Pageslearn and to review in order to succeed. Visit www.mymanagementlab.com to learn more. DEVELOPING MANAGEMENT SKILLS EIGHTH EDITION David A. Whetten BRIGHAM YOUNG UNIVERSITY Kim S. Cameron UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN Prentice Hall Boston Columbus Indianapolis New York San Francisco Upper Saddle River Amsterdam Cape Town Dubai London Madrid Milan Munich Paris Montreal Toronto Delhi Mexico City Sao Paulo Sydney Hong Kong Seoul Singapore Taipei Tokyo Editorial Director: Sally Yagan Editor
Monday, May 18, 2020
Kasandra Marzec Thomas/ 1B World Studies/ Honors November 19, 2014 Discussion of Animal Experimentation Research Animal experimentation has been the basis of human knowledge for the advancement of medical and biological breakthroughs as early as 200 C.E.. It has been estimated that more than 100 million animals are killed in U.S. laboratories alone for scientistsÃ¢â¬â¢ tests. Organizations and laws have been formed to prevent harmful experiments from taking the lives of animals, however, scientists argue that there would be a crushing blow to the future and current research in our world. Tests on animals have been around since the 3rd century since the Greeks dissected the bodies of animals to further understand how humans work. Fast forward in time and into the present where a striking number of animals are used for these purposes. In fact, the California Biomedical Association states that basically every medical theory has been accumulated through the experimentation on animals (Ã¢â¬Å"Animal TestingÃ¢â¬ ). Animals are used in research when there is a need to find out what happens in the whole, living body, which is far more complex than the sum of its parts. It is difficult, and in most cases, simply not yet possible, to replace the use of living animals in research with alternative methods. Also, Frankie Trull, a science advocate, has explained, Ã¢â¬Å"If youÃ¢â¬â¢ve even taken antibiotics, had a vaccine, had chemotherapy, an MRI, a blood transfusion, dialysis, an organ transplant then youShow MoreRelatedAnimal Experimentation And The Medical Field1043 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pageshigh-school, the discussion about animal experimentation would be brought up either in a Science or English class. 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Early experimentation with animals was originally born out of curiosity but eventually became a necessity to find medicines to cure viruses and a myriad of illnesses. If not for the existence of animals, humans would be left to experiment on themselves at a high rate which would create a worldwide moral dilemma. Such a dilemma could be dictated based on the question of who should be chosen for experimentation; should it be a particularRead MoreAnimal Experimentation And The Early Greek Era1716 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesYuritza Vargas-Gomez Ms. Thomas ENC 1101 9 November 2015 Animal Experimentation: We Owe It to Them Animal Experimentation has been dated as far back as to the Early Greek Era. This practice has been viewed as ethical by research scientists trying to find new medical breakthroughs. Yet, in recent years, the use of animals in research and experimentation has been frowned upon by animal protection groups and animal rights activists. 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These experiments are for things such as biology lessons, medical training, curiosity-driven experimentation, and chemical, drug, food, and cosmetics testing.(Procon writers) Animal testing, also known as animal experimentation, is the use of non-human animals in experiments that seek to control the variables that affect the behavior or biological system under study. Animal testing is controversial and people findRead MoreA Comparison Of Advocates And Adversaries Of Animal Research1641 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages A Comparison of Advocates and Adversaries of Animal Research Tony Lee April 20, 2015 Dr. Baine Craft Abstract The belligerent perspectives of animal research hold strongly to different goals. Advocates hold the view that animal research is beneficial to science and medicine, which can be applied for humans and animals alike. This is opposite from the perspective of adversaries who value the life of an animal, as well as related lives. History shows the progression of the adversaries
Tuesday, May 12, 2020
Sample details Pages: 16 Words: 4766 Downloads: 1 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Finance Essay Type Compare and contrast essay Did you like this example? For our assessment we will be analysing three companies form the oil and gas market. The companies that will be analysed are Fortune Oil PLC, Maple Energy PLC and Circle oil PLC. An introduction to the business market and the companies can be found below. Introduction to the oil and gas business market The oil and gas industry is a huge industry facing challenges and has evolved majorly. Most of the oil and gas production takes place under the seas. According to the Cambridge energy research associates, Inc oil demand may double up by 2030. To reduce the expenses of finding and producing oil and gas, new technology is used. Oil and gas provide 60 percent of the daily energy needs to 6.4 billion people and other 40 percent comes from other resources. Oil and gas represent globalization on a large scale. The market is expanding and spending billions of money for the oil and gas production. For country s long-term economic growth maintaining a steady supply of oil and gas is a necessity. Large quantities of oil and gas flows from exporting regions such as Africa, Latin America to the importing regions such as the north America, Europe and far east. This leads to political trade and economic growth. (Petroleumonline.com/Gas industry overview: 2010) Oil and gas industry is co mpeting with a global marketplace and has a higher number of stakes or stakeholders. There is no control over the demand for oil and gas in the world. It is constantly on the rise with the likes of upcoming economies like china and India playing more than an active part in their demand. (Ernst Young: 2010) Oil prices have varied from the year 2007 to 2009.During the year 2007 the average price in nominal and real 2008 US dollars soared to around 100 dollars. In the year 2009,the annual average price faced the great recession leading to loss. During the year 2008,the amount of oil production declined from 80 million barrels per day to 20 million barrels per day .Oil demand is expected to increase steadily until 2030 at about 110 million barrels per day. Iraq has a huge prize at stake for international oil companies. India and China s per capita oil consumption is at a lower level when compared to the other developed countries like UK, United states, Canada and so on. (Jim Burk hard: 2010) DonÃ¢â¬â¢t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Analysing The Financial Performance Of Three Oil Companies Finance Essay" essay for you Create order Introduction to Fortune Oil PLC Fortune Oil Plc has built up a portfolio of investments and operations in oil and gas industries through various subsidiaries and joint ventures and associated infrastructure projects that supply fuel to homes and businesses in China. The company is listed on the London Stock Exchange main board official list since 1993. It is headquartered in Hong Kong. ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ The companys aim is to be the first integrated gas industry in China with both upstream and downstream assets. It is also expanding opportunities in the oil terminal business and is one of the FewÃâÃ international companies involved in this part. ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ Fortune Oils assets are categorised into two main areas: oil terminal supply and natural gas. Its investments and operation s are mainly located in the Guangdong and Shanxi provinces and the Beijing hinterland. The Company is now developing coal bed methane reserves, which will integrate with our gas supply business and benefit Chinas environment. ÃâÃ China is the worlds second largest oil market and is also the largest growth market for natural gas. Fortune Oils gas strategy is to form an independent integrated gas company: developing their own resources of unconventional gas; sourcing gas from other producers and then selling this gas to end-users through the city gas companies or CNG vehicle stations.ÃâÃ Fortune Oil has already had Chinas first LNG production plant; the largest CNG station in Beijing and coal bed methane block in Shanxi Province.ÃâÃ At the present, there are no private or foreign companies in China with a regionally integrated gas business. Fortune Oil is now in the process of developing the Liulin block and seeking similar high quality opportunities, particularly in Shanxi Province-the largest CBM reserves in China. Fortune Oil already generates pipelines and city gas companies in the province, and isÃâÃ exclusively positioned to integrate upstream CBM developments withÃâÃ their gas distribution network. Ãâ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ China is the world second largest purchaser and importer of crude oil. Fortune Oil first developed oil terminals in China and remains one of the fewÃâÃ foreign investors. Currently the company operations include supplying jet fuel to most of the airports in south and central China and distributing 6% of China crude oil imports. The company is well positioned to benefit from the accelerated growth in energy imports and future liberalization of the China oil markets under the WTO agreements Introduction to Circle Oil (plc) Circle Oil is an oil and gas company, which was founded in 2003, and aiming at providing exploration, development and manufacture service for oil-related firms in the sector (Circle Oil: 2009). In order to pursue maximal profit, a clear strategy has been outlined and carried out throughout its development which could be depicted as locating, assessing and confirming licences in new hydrocarbon regions, subsequently Circle attempt to co-operate with other oil and gas firms in manufacturing through negotiation. In addition, Circle Oils share has been traded on AIM of the London Stock Exchange since 2004 (ibid), and its stable upward trend partly reflected the companys constant progression within these years. Its business place mainly involves with MENA area, which stands for Middle East and North Africa (Circle Oil: 2009: 5). Currently it has operated in five countries including Morocco, Egypt, Oman, Tunisia and Namibia. As their strategy stated, Circle is well placed to exploit o pportunities arising from recent industry consolidation and to do business in developing countries (Circle Oil: 2009). Their business activities in those countries might also stimulate local economic development and provide more opportunities for smaller firms to cooperate in the expensive oil industry. Apart from this, MENA area is rich in natural resources including oil and gas, in spite of under development (AAPG: 2003). In terms of performance, Circle Oil has already experienced a series of years excellence (Circle Oil, 2009 p.4). Specifically, in Morocco their six wells campaign had finished in 2009, and five of them have been proven profitable. Furthermore, a new trunk line will be facilitated to enhance its selling. In Tunisia, the completed 2D land seismic programme enables them to analysis-acquired data so that laying a solid foundation for further progress in coming years. In Egypt, Circle continued its success and 10,000 barrels of oil output daily could underpin their confidence significantly. Despite of some delay in Oman and Namibia, the preparation work was conducted properly according to its plan. Based on Circle chairmans statement, a further expansion and development in those countries are expected (Circle Oil, 2009 p.5). At the same time, they would continue to look for suitable projects which in line with their belief and selecting criteria for investment. While for the long run, the company plans to acquire some medium sized reserves. Introduction to Maple Energy PLC Maple energy plc is located in Peru and it is an integrated independent energy company since 1992. Maple mainly focuses on the ethanol project and exploring and producing the crude oil and natural gas. In addition, the main aim of Maple is to ensure its leading position of energy companies in Peru. However, Maple has been admitted to AIM just from 13th July 2007 and also listed in Lima from 21st December 2007. As stated in the Maple annual report from 2007 to 2009, Peru has a significant economic growth in 2007 and 2008, however, in 2009, Perus economic growth has fallen from 9.8% to 0.8%. In particular, Maple has to pay a large amount of deposits to Peru government. The advantage of Perus economic is that it is reported as the lowest inflation country in Latin America. From 2007, Maple planned to increase its cash flow and has set the aim to continue increasing cash flow in the following years. Meanwhile, in 2008, Maple planned to develop its Ethanol Project, which had become the leading company of producing Ethanol in Peru in 2009. Further, Maple was aimed to be the leading company in Peru of energy industry in 2009 and Maple is still working on this aim. Additionally, there are several risks for Maple. Firstly, the fluctuation of ethanol price and market all over the world would affect Maples development. Secondly, the downturn of world economy would affect Perus economy, which would also affect Maple. Thirdly, the policy of government in Peru may affect Maples development and so on. How the Analysis will be conducted To find out which of the three companies discussed above we would choose to invest in several factors will be taken into consideration. Using the balance sheet, income statement and cash flow statement of all three companies, we will analyse the companies financial performance . The first aspect of financial performance that will be analysed is that of profitability. One of the most important aspects that we will analyse will be the Return on Shareholders Funds (ROSF). This is essential for us to know as (ROSF)ÃÆ'Ã ¢Ã ¢Ã¢â¬Å¡Ã ¬ÃâÃ ¦compares the amount of profit for the period available to the owners with the owners average stake in the business during that same period (Atrill McLaney: 2008: 188). As well as this ratio it is also essential to analyse the Return on Capital Employed (Roce).ROCE will be use as a performance measure as it ÃÆ'Ã ¢Ã ¢Ã¢â¬Å¡Ã ¬ÃâÃ ¦is a fundamental measure of business performance (Atrill McLaney: 2008: 189). Along with these the operat ing profit margin and gross profit margin will also be used to help assess the profitability of the company. Once the profitability has been assessed liquidity will be assessed. This will be done as liquidity ratios show the ability of the business to meet its short term financial obligations (Atrill McLaney: 2008: 202). The ratios that will be used to analyse the liquidity of our chosen companies will be the current ratio and the acid test ratio. The analysis will then progress to analyse how much the companies are financed by borrowing, commonly known as the Gearing Ratio (Atrill McLaney: 2008). This is important to our analysis as a heavily geared business, a change in operating profit will lead to a proportionately greater change in the ROSF ratio (Atrill McLaney: 2008: 205). The final analysis will be of the investment ratios. To analyse the investment ratios the following will be used : dividend payout ratio, Earnings per share and price/ earning ratios. Along with this rigorous analysis of performance we will also take into consideration where the companies are primarily based and what markets they primarily trade in. This is important, as already briefly discussed above; the economic growth of a countries economy can affect the companys potential for growth and the companies potential for making profit. The laws of different countries may also have positive or negative effects on a companys financial performance. The findings of our analysis for each individual company will be presented, and then we will compare our findings of the individual companies against one another. Once all the relevant financial information has been analysed our findings will be presented within this document. After this our decision on how best to invest our money will be presented drawing upon the financial analysis that we conducted. Our decision will be presented along with any information that led to this decision. The financial ratios will be displa yed in a table with a descriptive results of our analysis presented underneath, that will include what the ratios shw us and the reasons behind why we chose to invest or not invest in that particular company. Our financial analysis will begin with Fortune Oil PLC. Fortune oils ratios and descriptive analysis 2007 2008 2009 ROSF ROCE 10.41 % 10.15 % 12.4% OPERATING PROFIT MARGIN 13.3% 13.3% 10.05% GROSS PROFIT MARGIN 14.93% 14.59% 18.23% CURRENT RATIO 1.75 1.65 1.19 ACID TEST RATIO 1.7 1.57 1.1 GEARING 31.68% 21 % 13.37% EARNINGS PER SHARE 0.25 pence O.49 pence 0.47 PRICE / EARNINGS RATIO The financial ratios that can be deduced from Fortune oils financial statements are very interesting. What can be noted from all of the ratios presented is that they are all positive, this is very important especially as the oil and energy industry can be very volatile and unpredictable. (Refe rence) Ratios Of Profitability ROSF ROCE- when analysing the return on capital employed a similar trend can be noticed to that of the operating profit margin and the gross profit margin. The year 2008 shows a dip however the ROCE then increases in the year 2009. This dip can be seen to be the result current liabilities having a bigger % increase then the operating profit. However in 2009 the operating profit dramatically increases and represents the 1.89% increase in the return on capital employed Overall this financial ratio is very positive and reflects Fortune oils good financial performance in general. The gross profit margin shows Fortune oils increasing revenue, there is a slight decrease in 2008 from 2007, however in 2009 there is a big increase from both the years 2007 and 2008. The gross profit margin shows an increase in revenue. The gross profit does not take into account other expenses that will affect the business hence there is the operating profit and n et profit. However the gross profit margin is still a useful ratio. The dramatic increase in 2009 can be explained by a dramatic increase of sails through gas (Fortune Oil: 2009). Operating Profit margin Fortune Oil has a healthy operating profit margin, although it steadily decreases over the three years analysed. This is due to increases in costs of operation over the three years due to the expanding operations of Fortune Oil. Ratios Of liquidity Current Ratio In 2007 Fortune Oil had a very healthy Current Ratio, however through the years 2008 and 2009 this can be seen to decline quite dramatically. Although in 2009 the current ratio was still at a good level this decrease over the three years is of concern. The decreasing of the current ratio is a result of both an increase in current liabilities and a decrease in current assets over the three years. Acid Test- the acid test ratios follow a similar pattern and can be explained by the same reasons as the current rati o. However the acid test ratio is also affected by the amount of inventories held by a company. From 2008 2009 the proportion of Fortune Oils current assets that were made up of inventories increased (Fortune Oil: 2009) Gearing Ratio The gearing ratio represents the ratio between the level of investment and the level of borrowings (Atrill McLaney: 2008). Although Fortune oils gearing ratio decreases over the three years due to increased amounts of borrowing, the gearing levels for all three years are healthy. The increase in borrowings are due to the expanding operations of Fortune oil and the investment in exploratory projects which in the coming years should generate a healthy amount of revenue for Fortune Oil (Fortune Oil: 2007: 2008: 2009) Investment Ratios The earnings per share follows a slightly strange pattern after a dramatic increase in 2008 form 2007 the earnings per share drops very slightly in 2009. This is an affect of the increase in Fortune Oils net pr ofits over the years, and the slight decrease can be seen by as light increase in the number of ordinary shares in issue Explanations for ratios The oil and gas industry can be extremely volatile (Reference) bearing this in mind Fortune Oils ratios are impressive. The slight decreases that are seen in some of the ratios such as the operating profit margin and the current ratio are a result of Fortune oil dealing with the severe recession that affected the business environment. The increase of current liabilities between 2007 2009 is an affect of this. The dramatic increase in the gross profit margin reflects Fortune Oil bouncing back from the recession with record sales and a buoyant Chinese economy (Fortune Oil: 2009). After an extremely volatile 2008 the economic environment was stable and this was reflected in stable energy prices (Fortune Oil: 2009). Fortune oil survived the economic recession with healthy financial ratios and managed to produce Fortune oils best revenues and net profits in the year 2009. The future also looks bright for Fortune oil with new development projects having been certified by the Chinese Government, Fortune oil can push forward their exploratory projects such as their operation in Liulin and joint partnerships with other companies. The alliance Fortune Oil has with the Chinese Government is extremely important for future success of the company and has enabled them to gain certification for operations that have generated significant amounts of income (Fortune oil: 2007: 2008: 2009) After surviving and moving out of the recessions with healthy financial statements and ratios 2010 could be an extremely profitable year for Fortune Oil and a chance to build upon their success of the last three years. Circle Oil Ratios and descriptive analysis 2007 2008 2009 ROSF ROCE -7.7% -18.3% -0.29% OPERATING PROFIT MARGIN NO REVENUE NO REVENUE -2.28% GROSS PROFIT MARGIN NO REVENUE NO REVENUE 48.84% CURRENT RATIO 3.37 3.16 2.4 ACID TEST 3.7 3.16 2.4 GEARING 59.6% 26.2% 31% EARNINGS PER SHARE LOS SPER SHARE 1.68c Loss per share 4.60 Loss per share 3.66c For the past three years (2007-2009) Circle oil company has been facing loss.According to the circle oil company s ratios , there is no return on ordinary share holders funds(ROSF) for the year 2007-2009.ROSF compares the amount of profit available to the owners with the owners average stake in the business during that same period(Atrill McLaney:2008:p188).For the money invested in the company in the year 2007 ,there s an operating loss . So return on capital employed (ROCE) is about -7.7 % .In the following year 2008, company faced a decrease in operating loss at about -18.3% and in year 2009 it went down to -0.29%. For the year 2007 and 2009 no revenue was obtained which lead to a loss whereas in the year 2009 ,cost of sales was about 15,093 US$.So the operati ng profit margin was about -2.28% which relates the operating profit to the sales revenue and the company recovered with the gross profit margin at about 48.84% which is a difference between sales revenue and cost of sales. Circle oil company is under debt as it has borrowed convertible loan.For the past three years there were no dividends which lead to a major loss and the money invested was not recovered by the shareholders Liquidity Ratios analysis The ratio of liquidity normally consists of current ratio and acid test ratio, and both of them have function of testing whether a company has capability of paying off short-term liabilities (Atrill McLaney, 2008). In this case, generally Circle Oil had a fantastic performance in liquidity ratios in successive three years as shown in the table above (Table 1). Specifically, in terms of current ratio Circle Oil had figures of 3.37, 3.16 and 2.4 from 2007 to 2009 respectively. Although the trend of downturn had been shown in thi s case, each of them, by comparing with benchmark of 2, could be labeled very high (Atrill McLaney, 2008). Similarly, the acid test ratio had nearly identical performance here, mainly because the three years inventories (excluding part) are extremely small that can barely make contribution in calculating of acid test ratios. Theoretically, the data had been revealed above should be encouraging for not only the company but also stakeholders. However, through carefully examining the detail of annual report, it had considerable amount of cash and cash equivalents in hand in all three years, and these may be problematic in terms of running business productively (Atrill McLaney, 2008). In addition, it is reasonable for us to imply that this result may have something to do with its business undergoing in recent years. According to chairmans statement (Circle Oil, 2009), Circle Oil has just changed from an oil explorative company to an oil production company, and everything relating to production is still in the preparatory phase, namely acquiring licenses, testing wells etc. Obviously, this explanation is in line with their data, but their performance in the future is questionable. Gearing ratio analysis As to gearing ratio, it enables analysts to work out how much proportion the long-term liabilities accounting for in businesss equity (Atrill McLaney, 2008). Ideally, the proportion of long-term liabilities should be limited within a specific range that firms can have some control over it as the more non-current liabilities possess, the more risk the company would have in future (ibid). In the context of Circle Oil, it had rather high figure of 59.6% in 2007 and reasonable one in 2008 with 26.2%. Finally the number bounced back a bit to 31% in 2009. The reason for having a abnormal gearing ratio in 2007 lies in the share premium in that year was much less than following two years by comparison. What is also worth mentioning is that base on Atrill McLaney (2008), if a highly geared firm has even some minor change in operating profit, the effect of returning to shareholders would be significant. It is not difficult to find out that the relationship between gearing ratio and operating profit at Circle Oil is direct proportion during that three years. Investment Ratio analysis Investment ratios are designed to help investors assess the returns on their investment (Atrill McLaney, 2008). In the case of Circle Oil, since there were not dividends announced for 2007, 2008 and 2009 (Circle Oil, 2001-2009), which might result from no profit generation, the two dividend-related ratios cannot be calculated. From this point, it is obvious that the company did not perform well in terms of giving benefits back to their investors in recent years. However, the earning per share ratio tells again that Circle Oil had some difficulties in generating profits for its shareholders. Specifically, in 2007 the loss per share stood at only 1.68c, while in 2008 this figure went up to 4.60, even though it had dropped down to 3.66 in 2009 (Table1), these information altogether convinced that the company may be a wrong place for investor to put their money in, at least for those three years. At the same time, it is also important to take the companys situation into account, meaning it is a new oil business and a number of gas and oil wells are still under testing and may have potential to be profitable source in the future. Therefore, this company may be a choice for people who intend to invest for a long haul. Maple Energy ratios and descriptive analysis 2007 2008 2009 ROSF -1.75% -5.33% -22.73% ROCE -0.74% -3.5% -6.97% OPERATING PROFIT MARGIN -1.2% -5.59% -14.3% GROSS PROFT MARGIN 26.62% 22.67% 24.1% CURRENT RATIO 3.27 1.56 0.63 ACID TEST 3.06 1.05 0.51 GEARING 13.5% 12.98% 17.89 EARNING PER SHARE LOSS PER SHARE 3.38 LOSS PER SH ARE 7.90 LOSS PER SHARE 26.06 The ratio analysis of Maple Energy Plc. The ratio analysis of Maple Energy Plc. This part will analyze Maples performance through profitability, liquidity, gearing, efficiency and investment ratios which are established from its annual financial report from 2007 to 2009. Profitability 2007 2008 2009 ROSF -1.75% -5.33% -22.73% ROCE -0.74% -3.5% -6.97% OPERATING PROFIT MARGIN -1.2% -5.59% -14.3% GROSS PROFIT MARGIN 26.62% 22.67% 24.1% The profitability ratios show the ability to make profits of a firm and the degree of success (Atrill McLaney, 2008). From the table above, the profitability ratios reveal main downfalls through the last three years. First, the return on capital employed ratio figures illustrate a steady decline in returns to all suppliers. In particular, the figures are negative because the operating profits of the three years are all negative. From 2007 to 20 09, the operating expenses were exceeding the gross profit although the company has got a large amount of gross profit. These ratios show a poor performance of Maple from 2007 to 2009. Consequently, this company has to pay not only its borrowed funds, but also the interests on the borrowed funds. Particularly, this is awful information for suppliers of long-term finance. Second, the return on ordinary shareholders funds ratios show a sharp decline in relation to the companys profit which were left to the owner. The figures are negative as well because the operating profit was already negative and the finance cost was exceeding the finance revenue. In particular, by 2009, loss for the year was almost three times than the loss for 2008. From the annual report for Maple Energy Plc, it is clearly that the finance cost has a rapid increase until 2009. As Atrill McLaney (2008) emphasized that companies are seeking as high as possible for return on ordinary shareholders funds ratio. Th ese negative ratios imply that Maple seems not possible to take some new businesses, such as a new investment. In addition, their negative profit for the year was a threat to their shareholders. Furthermore, a sharp decline of the operating profit margin ratios reveals that the company has a very poor performance for operating profit. For oil and energy companies, they tend to operate on high prices, thus compared to these negative ratios, Maples expenses were extremely higher than gross profit. Maple needs to either increase the sales revenue to exceed its cost or to reduce its operating expenses. Finally, for the gross profit margin ratios, they have a slight decline from 2007 to 2009. However, these figures are positive which means that the turnover is exceeding the cost of sales. Although the gross profit margin ratios have declined, from 2008 to 2009, both of the sales revenue and cost of sales have reduced. This means that the gross profit was still high related to the t urnover for Maple. Below is the graph to show the profitability ratios of Maple from 2007 to 2009 Liquidity ratios Liquidity determines the ability of a company to meet their immediate financial obligations (Atrill McLaney, 2008). When choosing an investment of the period less than 5 years, whether the company has the possibility to give back their trade payables and short-term obligations should be in consideration. The ratios used to measure the companys liquidity are the current ratio and the acid test ratio. 2007 2008 2009 CURRENT RATIO 3.27 1.56 0.63 ACID TEST 3.06 1.05 0.51 Maple Energys current ratios reveal the dramatically decreasing trend of the ability to pay off the short-term debts from the year 2007 to 2009. In the year 2007 the company had the highest amount of $ 34.34 million dollars cash at bank and in hand, but in the year 2008 and 2009 the amount has significantly dropped to 8.54 and 5.38 million dollars respectively( londonstockexchange, 2010). Moreover, the current liability has gone up triple for the year 2009. The acid test ratios from the year 2007 to 2009 are hardly different from the current ratios. The ratio has significantly dropped in the past 3 years, suggesting that 2009s liquidity is the main problem as the company has less than 70 cents to cover every $1 invested in the company. Graph for the trends of Liquidity ratios from 2007 to 2009 Gearing 2007 2008 2009 GEARING 13.5% 12.98% 17.89% INTEREST COVER -6 19.1 6.1 As Atrill McLaney (2008) stated, financial gearing is essential to evaluate the risk of business and the relationship between long-term loans and capitals. From the table above, the gearing ratio figures demonstrate a slight increase from 2007 to 2009. By 2009, the gearing ratio has increased to 17.89%, which could be considered as an acceptable figure. However, it seems that Maple could still increase its investment on loans, w hich could contribute to the long-term lenders and return to shareholders capital. In addition, from the balance for Maple, the reserves from 2007 to 2009 have not increased, which indicates that the low reserves are a potential risks for Maples business. Additionally, the interest cover ratios show an instable trend from 2007 to 2009. Due to the negative operating profit all three years, the operating profit could not cover the interest payable. As a consequence, it is an enormous risk for the shareholders of Maple that the lenders will try to recover their outstanding of interest by crack down on the business, especially by 2009, there was a large amount of operating losses. Efficiency ratios The Sales Revenue to Capital employed ratio is a main factor of the Return on Capital employed ratio, and the table mentioned below indicates the efficiency of the company by the usage of its assets generating sales revenues. Maple Energy 2007 2008 2009 Sales Revenue T o Capital Employed 0.61 0.63 0.49 Return on Capital Employed -0.74% -3.5% -6.97% There is a fluctuation of the sales revenue to capital employed, in the year 2008 the ratio slightly went up to 0.63. But then the ratio went down to 0.49 in the year 2009. Moreover, the company is still unable to provide the return to the shareholders as the return on capital employed has dramatically dropped down to -6.97% in 2009. The decline in ROCE due to the increase in the amount of operating loss, also suggesting the poor performance of the company. Earnings per share The earnings per share ratio are essential to examine the share performance of Maple energy. As shown in the graph above, the earnings per share ratio figures illustrate a sharp decline from 2007 to 2009. In particular, for the share performance, Maple was making loss all three years. Due to the fast increase of loss per share every year, there is a big risk that the shareholders or potential investors are not possible to invest into Maple. It is important for Maple to improve their operating profit and net profit. All in all, Maple has to reduce its cost and expenses to make its profit to be positive.
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
External otitis is an infection of the skin covering the outer ear and ear canal. It is also known as swimmers ear. It is most often a bacterial infection caused by the streptococcus, staphylococcus, or pseudomonas bacteria. Acute external otitis is usually caused by excessive water (usually from water sports), trapped in the external ear canal by cerumen. This trapped moisture can cause the skin in the ear canal to become a breeding ground for bacteria. As always, any cuts or abrasions can leave the any part of the body, including the ear canal, susceptible to bacteria and infections. External otitis affects the ear and auditory system. Someone with swimmers ear may first notice that their ear may feel full and itchy. The ear will swell,Ã¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦This will only aggravate the irritated skin, and in most situations will make the condition worse. In fact, scratching the inside of the ear will just make the ear itch more, and any medications prescribed will be ineff ective. The most common treatment consists of ear drops containing antibiotics or antibiotics with corticosteroids to reduce inflammation. Oral antibiotics may also be required in some cases. In some situations, a wick will need to be placed in the ear canal to stent it open and serve as a conduit for the ear drops. Periodic, and sometimes frequent, suctioning of the ear canal helps to keep it open, remove debris, and decrease bacterial countsÃ¢â¬ . (medicinenet.com, 2013) Ã¢â¬Å"Rheumatoid arthritis is a type of chronic arthritis that occurs in joints on both sides of the body, such as both hands, both wrists, or both knees. This symmetry helps distinguish rheumatoid arthritis from other types of arthritisÃ¢â¬ . If a joint is deemed as arthritic that means that there is inflammation within the joint. Inflammation within a joint can cause swelling, redness, warmth and pain within that joint. Rheumatoid arthritis primarily affects the joints, but may also affect the skin, eyes, l ungs, heart, blood, or nerves. Rheumatoid arthritis can present itself in many different ways. For some, joint symptoms develop gradually over several years, while others may develop quickly. Some people are affected by rheumatoid arthritis for a shortShow MoreRelatedEar Infection: Overview of Otitis Externa1152 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages Otitis externa, is one of the common types of ear infection. The other type of ear infection is otitis media. Both affect the Otolaryngology organ system. Otitis externa is also known as Ã¢â¬Å"swimmers earÃ¢â¬ and affects the external ear canal. That is why it is called otitis externa, because the affect is to the external air canal. Otitis externa is called swimmers ear because swimmers develop this condition when water settles in the ear and mixes with the cerumen (ear wax). This combinationRead MoreChronic Dermatological Disease Essay942 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesHigh environmental temperatures and trauma leads to a breech in the integrity of the ear canal skin (e.g. cotton buds, fingernails, hearing aids, ear plugs, paperclips, match sticks, mechanical removal of cerumen) (12). Host factors comprise anatomical wax and debris which accumulate and lead to moisture retention (e.g. a narrow ear canal, hairy ear canal). Absence or overproduction of cerumen leads to loss of th e protective layer and moisture retention respectively. Read MoreEar Infection Symptoms : True Explanation, Diagnosis And Treatment Essay1081 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesEar Infection Symptoms - True Explanation, Diagnosis And Treatment By Cody Wilkerson | Submitted On March 26, 2011 Recommend Article Article Comments Print Article Share this article on Facebook 1 Share this article on Twitter 2 Share this article on Google+ Share this article on Linkedin Share this article on StumbleUpon 1 Share this article on Delicious 1 Share this article on Digg 1 Share this article on Reddit Share this article on Pinterest Otitis, the medical term for ear infectionRead MoreDiscussion on Otitis Externa1050 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages In discussing otitis externa, the diagnosis can be explained by misdiagnosis. Some patients are diabetic immunocompromised with severe pain in the ear should have necrotizing OE excluded by an otolaryngologist. Otitis externa is an inflammation or infection of the external auditory canal, the auricle, or both. It is a common disease that can be found in all age groups. OE usually represents an acute bacterial infection of the skin of the ear canal (most commonly attributable to PseudomonasRead MoreCommon Pathogens That Cause Heent Infections?1521 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesWhat are some common pathogens that cause HEENT infections? Do you recommend a limited or an involved use of antibiotics in treatment of these diseases and other unconfirmed bacterial illnesses and why? Otitis Externa is most often caused by Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Acute otitis media can be caused by bacterial or viral pathogens. Some of the pathogens associated with acute otitis media (AOM) include, S. pneumoniae, H. influenza, M. catarrhalis, and Streptococcus pyogenesRead MoreThe Effects Of Otitis Media On Children818 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesrestorative finding from a doctor. OTITIS MEDIA The most widely recognized reason for listening to misfortune in kids is otitis media, the restorative term for a center ear disease or aggravation of the center ear. This condition can happen in one or both ears and basically influences kids because of the state of the youthful Eustachian tube (and is the most incessant finding for kids going to a doctor). At the point when left undiscovered and untreated, otitis media can prompt contamination ofRead MoreBacterial Isolates And Drug Susceptibility Patterns Of Ear Discharge From Patients With Ear Infection At Gonder University Hospital839 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagessusceptibility patterns of ear discharge from patients with ear infection at Gonder University Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia. Bio Med Central Ear Nose and Throat Disorders, 13, 1-5. Retrieved from http://www.biomedcentral.com/1472-6815/13/10 When treating ear infections with antibiotics, the big question is, Ã¢â¬Å"will this drug cover this germ?Ã¢â¬ Oftentimes, the practitioner will prescribe a broad spectrum antibiotic, which is effective against a wide range of microorganisms from throat infections, such as strepRead MoreAnatomy And Physiology Of The Ear979 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesthree separate segments that make up the ear. There is an outer, middle, and inner ear. If any of these structures were to receive some sort of trauma it could in turn cause some major damage and produce some serious complications. This paper is going to discuss the anatomy and physiology of the ear, different traumas in each segment of the ear, some signs and symptoms of ear trauma, treatments, and complications that can proceed from the trauma. External ear Trauma The pinna (auricle) and externalRead Moremidterm 554 Essay1430 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesReceived: 0 of 2 Ã Comments: QuestionÃ 3. Question : A 5 Y/O female toddler present to the clinic with C/O facial twitching at times. Mom reports H/O chronic ear infections with ear tube placement x 2 years ago. Upon exam, you notice a white mass behind the TM. You suspect: Ã Student Answer: Dislodged ear tube Ã Cholesteatoma Ã Serous otitis media Ã Granuloma Ã Points Received: 0 of 2 Ã Comments: QuestionÃ 4. Question : You have examined a 24 Y/O female who has acute asthma flare-upsRead MoreFacial Nerve Tumour : Diagnostic Reasoning2274 Words Ã |Ã 10 Pages(Marzo, Zender Leonetti, 2009). Surgical removal is considered when there is gross facial weakness (Marzo, Zender Leonetti, 2009). Acute Otitus Media with facial nerve palsy Diagnostic Reasoning Acute Otitis Media (AOM), is an inflammation with bacterial or viral pathology of the middle ear (Waheem, 2016). AOM commonly presents with otalgia, otorrhea, headache, and fever (Waheem, 2016). In AOM, facial palsy is a rare complication that is seen (Kitsko Dohar, 2007). Most commonly when this occurs
string(50) " 02 compared with soil from the erodible surface\." Soil quality is one of the most basic and perhaps least understood indicators of land health. Soil supports plant growth and represents the living reservoir that buffers the flows of water, nutrients, and energy through an ecosystem. The ongoing degradation of the earthÃ¢â¬ s soils by human activity, particularly agriculture, threatens human potential to feed a growing population. We will write a custom essay sample on Critical Issues of Soil Erosion Problems or any similar topic only for you Order Now The annual global erosion amounts to about 36 billion tons, of which 10 billion are due to natural causes and 26 billion are the result of human activity (Crosson et al. 995). The soil or runoff that has been eroded ends up in groundwater, lakes, streams, and rivers. The deposits of excess soil and the contaminates in it, cause further ecological complications. Bodies of water need to be dredged and monitored for contamination. Water levels are lowered with the increasing soil eroded into them, making our worldÃ¢â¬ s water supply a concern directly related to the erosion of soil. The process of soil renewing itself is largely unknown. However, there is consensus on the need for conservation. Evaluating the scope of the problem or predicting the effects that various solutions might have on agriculture and the environment is very difficult. Degradation is gauged for all soil in terms of compaction, erosion, nutrient loss and loss of organic matter. Soil quality refers to the capacity of a soil to perform these beneficial functions. Its texture, structure, water-holding capacity, porosity, organic matter content, and depth, among other properties determine a soilÃ¢â¬ s quality. Because soils naturally vary in their capacity to perform these functions, we must tie our understanding of soil quality to landscapes and land use. We must understand soil quality for two important reasons: First, we must match our use and management of land to soil capability. Second, we must establish understanding about soil quality so we can recognize ongoing trends. If soil quality is stable or improving, we have a good indicator that the ecosystem is sustainable. If soil quality is deteriorating, the larger ecosystem will almost certainly decline with it (Wilken 1995, Mirzamoatafa et al. 1998). Many conservation efforts are being taken to control soil erosion. In order to do this a universal language is need to measure soil erosion, texture, and the potential for erosion. Soil loss tolerance (Ã¢â¬Å"TÃ¢â¬ ) is the amount of a given soil that can be displaced by water or wind erosion each year and be replenished through natural soil regeneration processes. This is a basis for evaluating the impacts of soil erosion and develops objectives for conservation treatment. Erosion at rates greater than T is a special concern because it threatens agricultural sustainability. Enrichment Ratios (ER) often used as a measure of the nutrients available for soil. It is a ratio of the intrinsic potential for soil displacement from erosion to the Ã¢â¬Å"TÃ¢â¬ limit (Baffaut et al 1998). From 1991 to 1992 in Central KenyaÃ¢â¬ s highlands, these formulas were used to monitor runoff, soil loss, and enrichments of eroded soil material. Annual rainfall was 948 and 1125 mm for 1991 and 1992. Soil loss ranged from 0. 8 to 247. 3 tons, and runoff ranged from 1 to 89 mm. The enrichment ratios (ER) were [greater than or equal to] 1 and sediments were mostly enriched with P and Na. The P and Na concentrations were 4 to 10 and 2 to 3 times the source material. Sediment from the plots was 247 to 936% richer in P than the soil from which it originated. Too much P can have negative effects on the plant and wildlife surrounding it. Changes in soil pH, percentage organic C, and percentage total N following erosion were significantly correlated with cumulative soil loss (r values of 0. 77, 0. 59, and 0. 71, n = 20). The data indicated that the unbalancing of nutrients in the soil is due to erosion, and one of the major causes of soil fertility depletion of Kenyan soils (Gachene et. al. 1997). The Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) estimates average annual soil loss from sheet and till erosion. The equation is: A=RKLSCP, where A is the computed soil loss per unit area, R is a rainfall factor, K is a soil erodibility factor, L is a slope length factor, S is a slope degree factor, C is a crop practice factor, and P is a conservation practice factor (Baffaut et al 1998). Data from erosion plots in Tarija suggest only moderate rates of erosion (200tons-per. yr. ). Data at 6-min intervals for 41 sites in the tropics of Australia were used to compute the rainfall and runoff factor (R-factor) for the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE), and a daily rainfall erosivity model was validated for these tropical sites. Mean annual rainfall varies from about 300 mm at Jervois to about 4000 at Tully. For these tropical sites, both rainfall and rainfall erosivity are highly seasonal. The daily erosivity model performed better for the tropical sites with a marked wet season in summer in comparison to model performance in temperate regions of Australia where peak rainfall and peak rainfall erosivity may occur in different seasons (Yu 1998). The Wind factor must be considered when evaluating soil erosion. Plant nutrients are transported in windblown sediment. The Wind Erosion Equation (WEQ) is designed to predict long-term average annual soil losses from a field having specific characteristics. The equation is E=f (IKCLV), where E is the estimated average annual soil loss, I is the soil erodibility, K is the ridge roughness factor, C is the climatic factor, L is the equivalent unsheltered distance across the field along the prevailing wind erosion direction, and V is the equivalent vegetative cover (Baffaut et al. 1998). As validation for the Wind Erosion equation (WEQ) two field sites were established in southern Alberta (one in 1990, one in 1993). At Site 1, total N in windblown sediment trapped at 25-cm height showed an average (13 events) enrichment ratio of 1. 11, while organic C in windblown sediment showed an average enrichment ratio of only 1. 02 compared with soil from the erodible surface. You read "Critical Issues of Soil Erosion Problems" in category "Essay examples" At Site 2, the average (4 events) total N enrichment ratio was 1. 08 and the average organic C (carbon) enrichment ratio was 1. 05. The results provide further evidence that every effort should be to prevent erosion of the thin layer of surface soil that ensures the future sustainability of agriculture (Baffaut et. al. 1998). These examples of using universal formulas to measure soil erosion allow scientists to evaluate an area and compare efforts that are working else where and apply them to areas were soil erosion is in need of being lessened. During last 40 years, nearly one-third of the world land has been lost by erosion. This loss continues at a rate of more than 10 million hectares per year. The world populationÃ¢â¬ s food demand is increasing at a time when per capita food productivity is beginning to decline (Pimentel et al. 1995). If conditions leading to famine are to be avoided, land that produces food must be preserved. The ecological food web links plants, animals, and people must live in harmony with the planetÃ¢â¬ s water, soil, and atmosphere. Once those connections are severed the hunger web begins. To avoid these devastating effects, steps must be taking in all aspects of ecology. The greatest impact of soil erosion is farming practices that are ignorant to overall effects on the food web. The key to farming is to grow enough food for all of your people. When towns were made up of small farms this goal was more easily obtainable. When people stop farming, food production then became an industry where money takes precedent over soil. Because of demand and economic reason farmers in the United States are destroying delicate balances in nature and drastically altering the landscape so that soil is at risk of erosion, and is eroded faster than it can be formed. (Pimentel, Resosudarmo1995) Agricultural practices of cropping and tillage are two important factors that influence runoff and soil losses. Much research had been done to show the effects of different tilling and crop rotations on soil erosion. DoyleÃ¢â¬ s (1996) research concluded that between 1982 and 1992 the US improved or at least had no increase in average erosion rates in most areas with extensive cropland. Some of the improvement found was the result of crops being rotated and better tiling methods. Brown (et al 1998) investigated the effects of combining whey and straw in croplands. This research found that straw or whey alone reduces soil loss by 60-85 percent. When combined they reduce soil loss by 96- 98 percent. Ghidey and Alberts (1998) found through a study in Kansas that the annual runoff and soil losses from soybean cropping were slightly higher than those for corn. These studies and others like them have provided the knowledge of how to prevent further soil erosion. The Conservation Reserve Program pays farmers to remove or add environmentally sensitive crops to their croplands (Ghidey, Alberts 1998). There are many casualties of conventional chemical farming: erosion, a decline in soil quality, water purity, weakened crop resistance to pests and diseases, and the safety of farm workers. According to US News World Report, 9/14/92, an excess of $4 billion a year is spent on pesticides, fungicides, and herbicides Chemical farmers are still losing about a third of their crops each year to insects, diseases, and weeds. Because of tilling practices, these chemicals used in farming not only effect the food produced and ground water but also the places where the runoff is deposited. Herbicide loss by runoff is a world wide problem. These contaminated runoffs kill a variety of wildlife, aquatic life forms, and many species of vegetation. An economical and environmental alternative to conventional farming is organic crop production. Organic farming is a soil management system that maintains and replenishes soil fertility. Organic foods are produced without the use of synthetic pesticides or fertilizers. The strategy behind organic crop production is to produce food crops which are Ã¢â¬Å"processed, packaged, transported, and stored so as to retain maximum nutritional value without the use of artificial preservatives, coloring, or other additives. Allowable management techniques include: the use of cover crops, manures, and composts for soil fertility management, the use of mulches, hand or mechanical cultivation, and crop rotation for weed management, and production scheduling and crop selection for disease and insect management. Organic farming is not as easy or as productive as conventional farming, especially on infertile sandy soils. To be successful, an organic farmer requires a sound knowledge of soil type, crop management and the incidence of pests and diseases in different seasons (Arden-Clarke et al 1987). Organic production preferably should be combined with systems not usually used in agriculture such as cover crops and livestock farming. This requires a larger area than the normal agricultural holding, which must be chosen carefully. The Department of Agriculture (Elliott et al. 1987) certifies organic production systems. Certification involves the development of an organic plan for the operation, the plan to be evaluated and approved by an accredited agent, and the agreement of the farmer to abide by the list of approved substances. The organic agent also reviews soil and water tests, crop histories, production, and rotation plans. The area in which organic crops are to be grown must be chemical free for 3 years. They verify compliance with standards through annual and spot inspections, and record keeping requirements (Elliott et al. 1987). Consumers are demanding organically grown fruit and vegetables, and are willing to pay a higher price. The sales of organic products have increased from $178 million to over $4 billion in 1998, and is growing in excess of 20% per year. These operations will focus on the production of lettuce, tomatoes, and cucumbers (Us News World 1998). There is a demand for certified organic vegetables, especially with the new health awareness of the public. As with any type of farming, there is the risk of unfavorable weather and invasive pests, which could, reduced a seasonÃ¢â¬ s crop. Economics may be a large controlling factor for soil erosion. . When demand for grain increases, and supply decreases, price for food will increase. Americans can afford to pay a few cents extra for bread, horse food, and rice but poorer countries will suffer when food becomes too expensive. Although the United States has been referred to as the Ã¢â¬Å"bread basketÃ¢â¬ of the world because of our impressive food production, our history constituted prolific amounts of soil erosion. During the 1930Ã¢â¬ ³s dust clouds forced people from their homes, killed humans and animals alike, and caused snow in Vermont to be black. Agricultural economists are aware that severely eroded soils are less productiveÃ¢â¬âif too much soil is lost, the next planting and harvest are delayed. Soils are less productive if crop planting has to be delayed. Instead of harvesting five times in one season, farmers might only reap three. Severely eroded soils have deficiencies in nutrient, bacteria, alterations in structure, and decreased resistance to pests. Continuously planting row crops, corn for example, can cause severe soil loss. Sustainable agriculture can prevent or lessen soil erosion and ensure higher productivity (Gardner 1996). Our countyÃ¢â¬ s high demand for grain forces farmers to over work their land. The demand for this grain and the human consumption of grown vegetation are not the only factors leading to soil erosion. The beef industry and our consumption of red meat impacts soil erosion as well. Of the total amount of grain that is grown in the US, 80% of it is fed to livestock. To support our meat centered diet, 260 million acres of U. S. forest must be cleared to create cropland for livestock (Gardner1996). Costa Rican produced beef is even more devastating to the environment. For every ? lb. of Costa Rican beef made, one acre of Costa Rican rainforest must be destroyed. This devastation is worsened by the deaths of all the plant and animal species that occur due to habitat loss (Gardner1996). Because of the above reasons and several other moral, nutritional, and economical reasons, beef consumption is bad for the environment. Every individual who switches to a purely vegetarian diet (Gardner1996) spares one acre of trees each year. The factor of agricultural practices on soil erosion becomes more severe when forests, grasslands, and wetlands are destroyed. Roots from trees in forests, grasslands, and wetlands stabilize soil not only by holding earth, but also by intercepting precipitation, dispersing energy of raindrops, and by increasing infiltration and reducing runoff (Smith 1998). Native Americans have used good agriculture practices for years. American Indians had respect for the land and all of its life forms. One of their cultural beliefs about farming is centered on the three sisters: corn, squash, and beans. The corn provides a stalk for beans to climb. Beans produce nitrogen that fertilizes the corn. And squash protects the soil and corn roots from the sun, traps moisture, and prevents erosion. All three plants provide edible food, while preserving soil. (Wilken 1995) It is essential to the survival of the human race, and all other life forms that several forms of soil conservation practices are used. There is a finite amount of food that our country can produce before our production starts to decrease. Although erosion is a natural process, humans have found several unnatural ways to make soil erosion more severe. To be able to continue to feed the growing population and preserve the species diversity of wildlife and plants we need to have sustainable agriculture practices and soil conservation these efforts are crucial in the prevention of extensive soil erosion. How to cite Critical Issues of Soil Erosion Problems, Essay examples